This is for anyone else who wants some kind of reference while playing. I'm including both the katakana/kanji, and the character/letter breakdown in parentheses as it has helped me out in remembering what some of the characters mean without having to constantly refer to this (so hopefully you can eventually memorize some basic patterns).
Also, on the screen with the item and weapon/armor/unit shop, there's another shop to the right that I've been unable to access. So I decided to translate it and found out it's a customization shop, which I assume means you'll be able to customize your weapons' elements and PAs, and maybe armor or units to some degree. I'm also assuming it'll cost photon drops since they seem a lot more common (and are green box items now), as I have 22 of them at level 12. It's probably later unlocked through the story, but oh well.
If anyone else has anything else to contribute, that'd be great. Those traps sold from the item shop in particular are something I don't know, since I have no cast characters.
Credit to GameFAQs PS0 members and Duo759.
Link to thread: