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    Harmonious Harmlessness feather-flower's Avatar
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    Default the Hindu Origins of most Mag Names

    * * *
    PART ONE of a MULTI-POST
    (to deal with the technical difficulties that have been holding me up, since the night I first registered)
    * * *

    Okay, so before I begin the main topic, it must be acknowledged that there is already an article on the main site which touches on these origins: http://www.pso-world.com/sections.ph...cle&artid=2029

    But despite that, it is my hope that this forum post will not only add more details, but provoke curiousity for those who were unaware.

    From there I'll next state that even though this subject connects to some important history/mythology with real-world wisdom from various ancient traditions, it should be acknowledged that the game-developers probably didn't have any high-minded aspirations for choosing these terms when designing Phantasy Star Online. It was probably a situation where a glossary was consulted to quickly & efficiently acquire a myriad of exotic-sounding names for the abstract-entities that accompany the Player, in what basically amounts to a secondary-tier game-mechanic of "pet-raising". So there was LIKELY very little rhyme or reason to which Mags were given which names, despite the significance that certain names hold.

    Thirdly, I should note that even though I utilized the term "Hindu", the concept of "Hinduism" is a slightly misleading umbrella-term for a vast diversity of faiths & spiritual practices which originated from the Asian sub-continent of India. There are certainly commonalities between many of these ancient traditions, but actual adherents of the Mahabharata/the Bhagavad Gita/the Rig Veda/the Upanishads, etc etc; do not necessarily practice the same way as other fellow spiritual paths from India, such as Jainism, Buddhism, Shaktism, Bhaktism, Sikhism, Brahminism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, etc etc, which are also directly linked to the origins of the terminology that was utilized for naming Mags in Phantasy Star Online.

    Fourthly, even though I already acknowledged that the game developers probably chose these words for the sake of convenience in expediting their design-process, there is still a true treasure trove of ancient insight that still has perennial application & relevance to the modern day. With that in mind, I decided to make this topic in the hope that some people might continue to investigate further, if they feel a karmic connection towards any of the concepts briefly touched upon below. And, even if nobody does research more on their own, this forum post should still be an interesting bit of trivia for people who like Mags.

    Finally, the actual heart of this matter now commences, with links & quotes from other sites like Wikipedia:

    * * *

    Varuna

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varuna

    Varuna (/ˈvɜːrʊnə, ˈvɑːrə-/;[2] Sanskrit: वरुण, IAST: Váruṇa, Malay: Baruna) is a Vedic deity associated initially with the sky, later also with the seas as well as Ṛta (justice) and Satya (truth).[3][4] He is found in the oldest layer of Vedic literature of Hinduism, such as hymn 7.86 of the Rigveda.[4] He is also mentioned in the Tamil grammar work Tolkāppiyam, as Kadalon the god of sea and rain.[5] He is said to be the son of Kashyapa (one of the seven ancient sages).[6]

    In the Hindu Puranas, Varuna is the god of oceans, his vehicle is a Makara (crocodile) and his weapon is a Pasha (noose, rope loop).[3][7] He is the guardian deity of the western direction.[4] In some texts, he is the father of the Vedic sage Vasishtha.[3]

    Varuna is found in Japanese Buddhist mythology as Suiten.[7] He is also found in Jainism.[8][9]
    * * *

    Vrita

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vritra

    Vritra (Sanskrit: वृत्र, vṛtrá, lit. "enveloper") is a Vedic serpent, dragon or demon in Hinduism, the personification of drought, evil and chaos and adversary of Indra. Vritra is identified as an asura. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi (Sanskrit: अहि ahi, lit. "snake"). He appears as a human-like serpent blocking the course of the rivers and is heroically slain by Indra.[1]
    * * *

    Kalki

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalki

    Kalki (Sanskrit: कल्कि), also called Kalkin,[1] is the prophesied tenth and final incarnation of Hindu God Vishnu to end the Kali Yuga, one of the four periods in the endless cycle of existence (Krita) in Vaishnavism cosmology. The end of Kali Yuga states this will usher in the new epoch of Satya Yuga in the cycle of existence, until the MahaPralaya (the Great Dissolution of the Universe).[1][2]

    Kalki is described in the Puranas as the avatar who rejuvenates existence by ending the darkest and destructive period to remove adharma and ushering in the Satya Yuga, while riding a white horse with a fiery sword.[2] The description and details of Kalki are different among various Puranas. Kalki is also found in Buddhist texts, for example the Kalachakra-Tantra of Tibetan Buddhism.[5][6][7]

    The prophecy of the Kalki Avatar is also told in Sikh texts.[8]
    Ultimately, I found the choice of having Kalki be a novice Mag to be BOTH the most amusing discrepancy between a name's "spiritual-standing" & its "in-game standing". But maybe there's some subtle synchronicity to it, after-all, as the original Phantasy Star Online said on the back of its case: "You are not the only hero." So.... maybe.... "You are not the only Kalki"....? Intriguing to ponder.

    * * *

    Ashvinau


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashvins

    The Ashvins (Sanskrit: अश्विन्, romanized: Aśvin, lit. 'horse possessors'), also known as Ashwini Kumara and Asvinau,[3] are Hindu twin gods associated with medicine, health, dawn and sciences.[4] In the Rigveda, they are described as youthful divine twin horsemen, travelling in a chariot drawn by horses that are never weary, and portrayed as guardian deities that safeguard and rescue people by aiding them in various situations.[2][5]

    There are varying accounts, but Ashvins are generally mentioned as the sons of the sun god Surya and his wife Sanjna. The Hindu dawn goddess Ushas is considered to be their common consort. In the epic Mahabharata, the Pandava twins Nakula and Sahadeva were the spiritual children of the Ashvins and their wives Karenumati and Vijaya are considered to be a part of Devi Ushas.
    * * *

    Sumba

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumba_people

    The Sumba (or Sumbese) people are an ethnic group inhabiting Sumba Island in Indonesia, which is divided by two regencies, namely West Sumba Regency and East Sumba Regency. They refer to themselves as Tau Humba.[2] The Sumbese have been able to retain much of their culture despite foreign influences that arrived long ago on the Lesser Sunda Islands.
    * * *

    Namuci

    https://second.wiki/wiki/namuchi

    Namuchi ( Sanskrit Namuchi namuci m.) is the name of a "demon" ( Asura ) in Vedic mythology and adversary of the god Indra . [1]
    Mythos

    One day Namuchi stole Somatrank from Indra and contaminated it with brandy . Thereupon Indra swore revenge, but due to a contract he was not allowed to attack Namuchi by day or by night, neither with anything solid nor with something liquid, neither with wood nor with stone. But one day, at dusk, the god discovered a column of foam in the sea. Neither solid nor liquid, neither stone nor wood, Indra threw the pillar at Namuchi and beheaded him with it. In this way he regained his soma, which he purified through a sacred ritual. However, since Namuchi's killing looked like a breach of contract, Indra herself had to free herself from this sin through a purification sacrifice. [2]
    * * *

    Marutah

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maruts

    The Maruts (/məˈrʊts/;[2] Sanskrit: मरुत), also known as the Marutagana and sometimes identified with Rudras,[3] are Vedic storm deities and sons of Rudra and Prisni. The number of Maruts varies from 27 to sixty (three times sixty in RV 8.96.. They are very violent and aggressive, described as armed with golden weapons i.e. lightning and thunderbolts, as having iron teeth and roaring like lions, as residing in the northwest,[4] as riding in golden chariots drawn by ruddy horses.

    In the Vedic mythology, the Maruts act as Indra's companions as a troop of young warriors.[5] According to French comparative mythologist Georges Dumézil, they are cognate to the Einherjar and the Wild hunt.
    * * *

    Rudra

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudra

    Rudra (/ˈrʊdrə/; Sanskrit: रुद्र) is a Rigvedic deity associated with wind or storm,[1] Vayu[2][3] and the hunt.[4] One translation of the name is 'the roarer'.[5][6][7] In the Rigveda, Rudra is praised as the 'mightiest of the mighty'.[8] Rudra means "who eradicates problems from their roots". Depending upon the periodic situation, Rudra can mean 'the most severe roarer/howler' (could be a hurricane or tempest) or 'the most frightening one'. This name appears in the Shiva Sahasranama, and R. K. Sharma notes that it is used as a name of Shiva often in later languages. The Shri Rudram hymn from the Yajurveda is dedicated to Rudra and is important in the Saivism sect.[9][10] In Prathama anuvaka of Namakam (Taittiriya Samhita 4.5), Sri Rudram the 'mightiest of the mighty' Rudra, is revered as Sadasiva (means 'mighty shiva') and Mahadeva. Sadashiva, is the Supreme Being Lord Paramashiva in the Mantra marga Siddhanta sect of Shaivism. Also, the name siva is used plenty of times in the same Anuvaka for invoking Rudra.
    * * *

    Surya

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surya

    Surya (/ˈsuːrjə/;[3]Sanskrit: सूर्य, IAST: Sūrya) is the sun[4]: 399–401  and the solar deity in Hinduism,[4]: 343  particularly in the Saura tradition found in Indian states such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha. Surya is one of the major five deities in Hinduism, considered as equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja and means to realize Brahman in the Smarta Tradition.[5]: 113  Synonyms of Surya in ancient Indian literature include Aditya, Arka, Bhanu, Savitr, Pushan, Ravi, Martanda, Mitra, Bhaskara, Prabhakara, Kathiravan, and Vivasvan.[4]: 5, 39, 247, 343, 399–400 [6][7]

    The iconography of Surya is often depicted riding a chariot harnessed by horses, often seven in number[1] which represent the seven colours of visible light, and seven days in a week.[4]: 399–401 [8] In medieval Hinduism, Surya was considered to be a manifestation of the Hindu Major Gods Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu.[4]: 343 [9] In some ancient texts and arts, Surya is presented syncretically with Indra, Ganesha or others.[8][4]: 5, 39, 247, 343, 399–400  Surya as a deity is also found in the arts and literature of Buddhism and Jainism.In the Mahabharata and Ramayana, Surya is present as the spritual father of Lord Rama and Karna(the protagonists of the Mahabharata and Ramayana). Extensively used as a glorification for the heroes of the epics by Vyasa and Valmiki. Surya was the supreme deity after Lord Shiva during the time of Mahabharata and Ramayana[10][11]

    Surya is depicted with a Chakra, also interpreted as Dharmachakra.[12] Surya is the lord of Simha (Leo), one of the twelve constellations in the zodiac system of Hindu astrology. Surya or Ravi is the basis of Ravivara, or Sunday, in the Hindu calendar.[13] Major festivals and pilgrimages in reverence for Surya include Makar Sankranti, Pongal, Samba Dashami, Ratha Sapthami, Chath puja and Kumbh Mela.[14][15][16]

    Having survived as a primary deity in Hinduism arguably better and longer than any other of the original Vedic deities, the worship of Surya declined greatly around the 13th century, perhaps as a result of the Muslim conquest of North India. New Surya temples virtually ceased to be built, and some were later converted to a different dedication. A number of important Surya temples remain, but many are no longer in worship. In certain aspects, Surya has tended to be merged into Vishnu or Shiva, or seen as subsidiary to them.[17]
    * * *

    Tapas

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapas_(Indian_religions)

    Tapas (Sanskrit: तपस्) is a variety of austere spiritual meditation practices in Indian religions. In Jainism, it means asceticism (austerities, body mortification);[1][2] in Buddhism, it denotes spiritual practices including meditation and self-discipline;[3] and in the different traditions within Hinduism it means a spectrum of practices ranging from asceticism, inner cleansing to self-discipline by meditation practices.[4][5][6] The Tapas practice often involves solitude, and is a part of monastic practices that are believed to be a means to moksha (liberation, salvation).[2]

    In the Vedas literature of Hinduism, fusion words based on tapas are widely used to expound several spiritual concepts that develop through heat or inner energy, such as meditation, any process to reach special observations and insights, the spiritual ecstasy of a yogin or Tāpasa (a vṛddhi derivative meaning "a practitioner of austerities, an ascetic"), even warmth of sexual intimacy.[7] In certain contexts, the term means penance, pious activity, as well as severe meditation.[8]
    Fun fact about me #1: This particular Mag was among my favourites, even though it wasn't even a "fully evolved" Mag!

    You see: back during the days of the official SEGA servers for PSO Ep. 1 & 2 (on the Gamecube), it was originally confusing to me about how to actually know what items you should use in order to get a Mag you wanted in specific.

    Initially unaware of sites like PSOW, what ended up happening is that I met a great friend named Sophia Seed.

    She would mostly sit around in lobbies, before heading into the actual game to raise Mahs.

    After we became friends, the two of us would cooperate together: I would run through areas with her, while she got all the items to either feed or sell to the shop & buy the right fluids/mates/atomizers.

    This sped up her process atleast a little,
    even though we probably didn't do it that many times.

    (Weird to think about how in those years... if I played recurringly with someone even for a few months, they made a significant impact on me. Whereas, for Sophia Seed, she might not have received any lasting impression, compared to whomever she felt were more compelling online-friends. Differing levels of social "value" in cyber-space sure can be strange!)

    Regardless,
    she raised me a Tapas.

    And I will forever appreciate her for that help. And still cherish our friendship, no matter how ephemerally it lasted.

    (Funnily enough, on the subject of "lasting only ephemerally", since Tapas wasn't a final stage Mag, I actually wasn't allowed to feed my Tapas, or it would transform to the next stage, which was undesired by me.
    And that meant that eventually, the Tapas had to mostly live in the Bank, since the Mag stat-boost became quite critical in Ultimate Mode. Hence getting replaced by two or three other Mags later.)

    * * *

    Mitra


    1.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitra
    2.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitra_(Hindu_god)

    Mitra (Sanskrit Mitrá) is a divinity of Indic culture, whose function changed with time. In the Mitanni inscription, Mitra is invoked as one of the protectors of treaties. In the Rigveda, Mitra appears primarily in the dvandva compound Mitra-Varuna, which has essentially the same attributes as Varuna alone,[1] e.g. as the principal guardian of ṛtá "Truth, Order". In the late Vedic texts and the Brahmanas, Mitra is increasingly associated with the light of dawn and the morning sun (while Varuna becomes associated with the evening, and ultimately the night). In the post-Vedic texts – in which Mitra practically disappears[2] – Mitra evolved into the patron divinity of friendship, and because he is "friend", abhors all violence, even when sacred.[3]
    3.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithra

    The thing which stands out most about this particular figure is that the "good guys" & "bad guys" of Hinduism and Zoroastrianism seem to parallel one another, but reverse which "side" is deemed to be the one worth rooting for.

    And that has profound implications when applied to the very nature of religions and the peoples who practice(d) these traditions.

    Two sides to every story, as the saying goes.

    * * *

    Asparas

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsara

    An apsaras or apsara (Sanskrit apsaras [also apsarā], Pali accharā) is a type of female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu and Buddhist culture. They figure prominently in the sculpture, dance, literature and painting of many South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures.[1] There are two types of apsaras: laukika (worldly) and daivika (divine). Urvasi, Menaka, Rambha, Tilottama and Ghritachi are the most famous among them.[2]

    Apsaras are widely known as Apsara (អប្សរា Âbsâréa) in Khmer, and also called as Accharā in Pāli, or Bidadari (Malay, Maranao), Biraddali (Tausug, Sinama), Hapsari/Apsari or Widadari/Widyadari (Javanese), Helloi (Meitei) and Apsorn (Thai: อัปสร). English translations of the word "Apsara" include "nymph", "fairy", "celestial nymph", and "celestial maiden".

    In Indian mythology, apsaras are beautiful, supernatural female beings. They are youthful and elegant, and superb in the art of dancing. They are often wives of the Gandharvas, the court musicians of Indra. They dance to the music made by the Gandharvas, usually in the palaces of the gods, entertain and sometimes seduce gods and men. As ethereal beings who inhabit the skies, and are often depicted taking flight, or at service of a god, they may be compared to angels.

    Apsaras are said to be able to change their shape at will and rule over the fortunes of gaming and gambling.[3] Apsaras are sometimes compared to the Muses of ancient Greece, with each of the 26 Apsaras at Indra's court representing a distinct aspect of the performing arts. They are associated with fertility rites. The Bhagavata Purana also states that the apsaras were born from Kashyapa and Muni.
    Fun fact about me #2: the Apsaras Mag was another one of my favourite Mags, especially on the RAmarl character that I never took online.

    * * *

    Vayu

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vayu

    Vayu[a] (Sanskrit pronunciation: [ʋaːjʊ], Sanskrit: वायु, IAST: Vāyu) is a primary Hindu deity, the lord of the winds as well as deity of breath and the spiritual father of Hanuman and Bhima. He is also known as Anila ('air, wind'), Vyāna ('air'), Vāta ('airy element'), Tanuna ('the wind'), Pavana ('the purifier'),[3] and Prāṇa ('the life force').

    Indian author Vanamali says, "Vaishnavites or followers of Vishnu, believe that the wind god Vayu underwent three incarnations to help Lord Vishnu. As Hanuman he helped Rama, as Bhima, he assisted Krishna.
    This subject is a particularly important one if you delve into breathing-meditation. So look into "pranayama" and "anapanasati":

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pranayama

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anapanasati

    * * *

    Varaha

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varaha

    Varaha (Sanskrit: वराह, Varāha, "boar") is the avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, in the form of a boar. Varaha is generally listed as third in the Dashavatara, the ten principal avatars of Vishnu.

    Varaha is most commonly associated with the legend of lifting the Earth (personified as the goddess Bhudevi) out of the cosmic ocean. When the demon Hiranyaksha stole the earth and hid her in the primordial waters, Vishnu appeared as Varaha to rescue her. Varaha slew the demon and retrieved the Earth from the ocean, lifting it on his tusks, and restored Bhudevi to her place in the universe.

    Varaha may be depicted as completely a boar or in an anthropomorphic form, with a boar's head and the human body. His consort, Bhudevi, the earth, is often depicted as a young woman, lifted by Varaha.
    In addition to Varaha proper, there is also Varahi & Vajravarahi, whom is pivotal in Vajrayana Buddhism.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varahi

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrav...r%C4%81h%C4%AB

    * * *

    Ushasu

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ushas

    Ushas (Vedic Sanskrit: उषस् / uṣás) is a Vedic goddess of dawn in Hinduism.[1][2] She repeatedly appears in the Rigvedic hymns, states David Kinsley, where she is "consistently identified with dawn, revealing herself with the daily coming of light to the world, driving away oppressive darkness, chasing away evil demons, rousing all life, setting all things in motion, sending everyone off to do their duties".[3] She is the life of all living creatures, the impeller of action and breath, the foe of chaos and confusion, the auspicious arouser of cosmic and moral order called the Ṛta in Hinduism.[3][4]

    Ushas is the most exalted goddess in the Rig Veda, but not as important or central as the three male Vedic deities Agni, Soma and Indra.[5] She is on par with other major male Vedic deities.[5] She is portrayed as a beautifully adorned young woman riding in a golden chariot or a hundred chariots, drawn by golden red horses or cows,[1] on her path across the sky, making way for the Vedic sun god Surya, who is referred either as her husband or her son.[1][3][6] Some of the most beautiful hymns in the Vedas are dedicated to her.[1][7][4] Her sister is Ratri, or the night.[1]
    * * *

    Kama


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kama

    Kama (Sanskrit: काम; IAST: kāma; Tamil: காமம்) means "desire, wish, longing" in Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain literature.[1][4][5][6] Kama often connotes sensual pleasure, sexual desire, and longing both in religious and secular Hindu and Buddhist literature,[5][6] as well as contemporary Indian literature,[2] but the concept more broadly refers to any desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses, desire for, longing to and after, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, enjoyment of love is particularly with or without enjoyment of sexual, sensual and erotic desire, and may be without sexual connotations.[5][7]

    Kama is one of the four goals of human life and is also contemplated as one of the primary needs to fulfill during the stages of life according to the Hindu tradition.[1][2][8] It is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing the other three goals: Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization).[1][8][9][10] Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha.[11]
    * * *

    Kaitabha
    &
    Madhu

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madhu-Kaitabha

    Madhu (Sanskrit: मधु, madhu) and Kaitabha (Sanskrit: कैटभ, kaiṭabha) are two daityas in Hindu Scripture and are associated with Hindu religious cosmology. They both originated from the earwax in God Vishnu's ears while he was in the meditative deep sleep state of Yoganidra. From his navel, a lotus sprouted on which Brahma, the creator, sat contemplating the creation of the cosmos.

    Bhagavata Purana states that during the creation, the demons Madhu and Kaitabha stole the Vedas from Brahma and deposited them deep inside the waters of the primeval ocean. Vishnu, in his manifestation as Hayagriva, killed them, and retrieved the Vedas. The bodies of Madhu and Kaitabha disintegrated into 2 times 6 — which is twelve pieces (two heads, two torsos, four arms and four legs). These are considered to represent the twelve seismic plates of the Earth.

    According to another legend, Madhu and Kaitabha were two demons who had become powerful enough to annihilate Brahma. However, Brahma spotted them and beseeched goddess Mahamaya for help. Vishnu then awoke and the two conspiring demons were killed.[1] This led to Vishnu being called Madhusudanah - the killer of Madhu, and Mahamaya came to be known as Kaitabhi.[citation needed]

    According to Devi Bhagavata Purana, Madhu and Kaitabha originated from Lord Vishnu's earwax and performed a long period of tapas devoted to goddess Mahadevi. The goddess granted them the boons of invincibility and voluntary death. The proud demons then started attacking Brahma. Brahma sought Vishnu's help but was unable to awaken Vishnu who was still in deep meditative sleep. Brahma then prayed to Mahadevi and she helped awaken Vishnu. The two demons then fought against Vishnu and were undefeated. Upon advice from Mahadevi, Vishnu employed a trick to destroy the two demons.[2] Vishnu praised the powers of the two demons and said that he was pleased to grant them boons. The boastful demons, proud of their victories against Vishnu, said that they were willing to grant him boons instead. Vishnu cleverly asked Madhu and Kaitabha for their lives and they granted the wishes by killing themselves (voluntary death).[3]
    * * *

    Kumara

    1.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Kumaras

    The Kumaras are four sages (rishis) from the Puranic texts of Hinduism who roam the universe as children,[1][2] generally named Sanaka kumara, Sanatana kumara, Sanandana kumara and Sanat kumara. They are described as the first mind-born creations and sons of the creator-god Brahma. Born from Brahma's mind, the four Kumaras undertook lifelong vows of celibacy (brahmacharya) against the wishes of their father. They are said to wander throughout the materialistic and spiritualistic universe without any desire but with purpose to teach.[1] All four brothers studied Vedas from their childhood, and always travelled together.[3]

    The Bhagavata Purana lists the Kumaras among the twelve Mahajanas (great devotees or bhaktas)[4] who although being eternally liberated souls from birth, still became attracted to the devotional service of Vishnu from their already enlightened state.[5] they play a significant role in a number of Hindu spiritual traditions, especially those associated with the worship of Vishnu and his avatar Krishna, sometimes even in traditions related to Lord Shiva.
    2.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kartikeya

    Kartikeya (Sanskrit: कार्त्तिकेय, romanized: Kārttikeya), also known as Skanda, Kumara,[7] Murugan (Tamil: முருகன்), Shanmugha (IAST: Ṣaṇmukha) and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war.[8][9][10] He is a son of Parvati and Shiva, brother of Ganesha, and a god whose life story has many versions in Hinduism.[11] An important deity in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, Kartikeya is particularly popular and predominantly worshipped in South India, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Malaysia as Murugan.[8][9][11][12]

    Kartikeya is an ancient god, traceable to the Vedic period. Archaeological evidence from the 1st-century CE and earlier,[13] where he is found with the Hindu god Agni (fire), suggests that he was a significant deity in early Hinduism.[8] He is found in many medieval temples all over India, such as the Ellora Caves and Elephanta Caves.[14]

    The iconography of Kartikeya varies significantly; he is typically represented as an ever-youthful man, riding or near an Indian peafowl, called Paravani,[15] adorned with weapons and sometimes with an emblem of a rooster in the flag he holds. Most icons show him with only one head but some show him with six heads which reflect the legend surrounding his birth.[8][9][11] He grew up quickly, becoming a philosopher-warrior, destroyed the demons Tarakasura, Simhamukha and Surapadma, and taught the pursuit of an ethical life and the theology of Shaiva Siddhanta.[9][10] He has inspired many poet-saints, such as Arunagirinathar.[10][16]

    Kartikeya is found as a primary deity in temples wherever communities of the Tamil people live worldwide, particularly in Tamil Nadu state of India, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Canada, and Réunion. Three of the six busiest temples in Tamil Nadu are dedicated to him.[10] The Kataragama temple dedicated to him in Sri Lanka attracts Tamils, Sinhalese people and Vedda people.[13] He is also found in other parts of India, sometimes as Skanda, but in a secondary role along with Ganesha, Parvati and Shiva.[9]
    * * *

    Bhirava

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhairava

    Kala Bhairava (Sanskrit: भैरव, lit. frightful) is a Shaivite deity worshiped by Hindus. In Shaivism, he is a fierce manifestation of Shiva associated with annihilation.[1][2][3][4][excessive citations] In Trika system Bhairava represents Supreme Reality, synonymous to Para Brahman.[5][6] Generally in Hinduism, Bhairava is also called Dandapani ("[he who holds the] Danda in [his] hand"), as he holds a rod or Danda to punish sinners, and Swaswa, meaning "whose vehicle is a dog".[7] In Vajrayana Buddhism, he is considered a fierce emanation of boddhisatva Mañjuśrī, and also called Heruka, Vajrabhairava, and Yamantaka.[8][9]

    He is worshiped throughout India, Nepal and Sri Lanka as well as in Tibetan Buddhism.[10][11]
    Also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhairavi

    Bhairavi (Sanskrit: भैरवी) is a Hindu goddess, described as one of the Mahāvidyas, the ten avatars of the Mother Goddess. She is the consort of Bhairava[2][3]
    * * *

    Ila

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ila_(Hinduism)

    Ila (Sanskrit: इल) or Ilā (Sanskrit: इला) is an androgyne deity in Hindu legends, known for their sex changes. As a man, he is known as Ila or Sudyumna and as a woman, is called Ilā. Ilā is considered the chief progenitor of the Lunar dynasty of Indian kings – also known as the Ailas ("descendants of Ilā").

    While many versions of the tale exist, Ila is usually described as a daughter or son of Vaivasvata Manu and thus the sibling of Ikshvaku, the founder of the Solar Dynasty. In versions in which Ila is born female, she changes into a male form by divine grace soon after her birth. After mistakenly entering a sacred grove as an adult, Ila is either cursed to change his/her gender every month or cursed to become a woman. As a woman, Ilā married Budha, the god of the planet Mercury and the son of the lunar deity Chandra (Soma), and bore him a son called Pururavas, the father of the Lunar dynasty. After the birth of Pururavas, Ilā has transformed into a man again and fathered three sons.

    In the Vedas, Ilā is praised as Idā (Sanskrit: इडा), goddess of speech, and described as the mother of Pururavas.

    The tale of Ila's transformations is told in the Puranas as well as the Indian epic poems, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
    * * *

    Garuda

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garuda

    Garuda (Sanskrit: गरुड Garuḍa; Pāli: गरुळ Garuḷa; Vedic Sanskrit: गरुळ Garuḷa) is a Hindu god and divine creature mentioned in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain faith.[1][3][4] He is variously the mount (vahana) of the Hindu god Vishnu. Garuda is also half brother of Devas, Daityas, Danavas and Yakshas. He is son of sage Kashyap and Vinata. He is younger brother of Aruna, the charioteer of Sun. He is more powerful than his half brothers. Garuda is mentioned in several other texts such as Puranas and Vedas.

    Garuda is described as the king of birds and a kite-like figure.[5][6] He is shown either in zoomorphic form (giant bird with partially open wings) or an anthropomorphic form (man with wings and some bird features). Garuda is generally a protector with the power to swiftly go anywhere, ever watchful and an enemy of the serpent.[1][6][7] He is also known as Tarkshya and Vynateya.[8]

    Garuda is a part of state insignia in India, Indonesia and Thailand. The Indonesian official coat of arms is centered on the Garuda. The national emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila.[9] The Indian Air Force also uses the Garuda in their Guards Brigade coat of arms and named their special operations unit after it as Garud Commando Force. It is often associated with the Greater adjutant stork (Leptoptilos dubius).[10][11]
    * * *

    Sita

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sita

    Sita (Sanskrit: सीता; IAST: Sītā), also spelt Seeta is a Hindu goddess and the female protagonist of the Hindu epic, Ramayana. She is the consort of Rama, the avatar of the god Vishnu and is regarded as a form of Vishnu's wife Lakshmi. She is also the chief goddess of Rama-centric Hindu traditions. Sita is known for her dedication, self-sacrifice, courage, and purity.

    Described as the daughter of Bhūmi (the earth), Sita is brought up as the adopted daughter of King Janaka of Videha.[1][2] Sita, in her youth, chooses Rama, the prince of Ayodhya as her husband in a swayamvara. After the swayamvara, she accompanies her husband to his kingdom, but later chooses to accompany her husband, along with her brother-in-law Lakshmana, in his exile. While in exile, the trio settles in the Dandaka forest from where she is abducted by Ravana, the Rakshasa king of Lanka. She is imprisoned in the garden of Ashoka Vatika, in Lanka, until she is rescued by Rama, who slays her captor. After the war, in some versions of the epic, Rama asks Sita to undergo Agni Pariksha (an ordeal of fire), by which she proves her purity, before she is accepted by Rama, which for the first time makes his brother Lakshmana get angry at him.

    In some versions of the epic, Maya Sita, an illusion created by Agni, takes Sita's place and is abducted by Ravana and suffers his captivity, while the real Sita hides in the fire. Some scriptures also mention her previous birth being Vedavati, a woman Ravana tries to molest.[3] After proving her purity, Rama and Sita return to Ayodhya, where they are crowned as king and queen. One day, a man questions Sita's purity and in order to prove her innocence and maintain his own and the kingdom's dignity, Rama sends Sita into the forest near the sage Valmiki's ashram. Years later, Sita returns to the womb of her mother, the Earth, for release from a cruel world and as a testimony of her purity, after she reunites her two sons Kusha and Lava with their father Rama.[4]
    * * *

    Soma

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandra

    Chandra (Sanskrit: चन्द्र, romanized: Candra, lit. 'shining or moon'), also known as Soma (Sanskrit: सोम), is the Hindu god of the Moon, and is associated with the night, plants and vegetation. He is one of the Navagraha (nine planets of Hinduism) and Dikpala (guardians of the directions).[4]
    * * *

    Durga

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durga

    Durga (Sanskrit: दुर्गा, IAST: Durgā) is a major deity in Hinduism. She is worshipped as a principal aspect of the mother goddess Devi and is one of the most popular and widely revered among Indian divinities. She is associated with protection, strength, motherhood, destruction and wars.[4][5][6] Her legend centres around combating evils and demonic forces that threaten peace, prosperity, and Dharma the power of good over evil.[5][7] Durga is believed to unleash her divine wrath against the wicked for the liberation of the oppressed, and entails destruction to empower creation.[8] Historians of religion and art tend to trace the earliest depiction of Durga to the seals of Indus Valley Civilization. However, this claim lacks direct visual evidence from the site. There are several hints to her in the early Vedic texts and by the time of the epics, she emerges as an independent deity. According to Hindu legends, Durga is created by the gods to defeat the demon Mahishasura, who could be only killed by a female. Durga is seen as a motherly figure and often depicted as a beautiful woman, riding a lion or tiger, with many arms each carrying a weapon and often defeating demons.[2][9][10][11] She is widely worshipped by the followers of the goddess centric sect, Shaktism, and has importance in other denominations like Shaivism and Vaishnavism. Under these traditions, Durga is associated and identified with other deities. There are many devotees of Goddess Durga who recite Saptashloki Durga Saptashati to seek her blessings.[7][12]

    The two most important texts of Shaktism, Devi Mahatmya and Devi-Bhagavata Purana, reveres Devi or Shakti (goddess) as the primordial creator of the universe and the Brahman (ultimate truth and reality).[13][14][15] While all major texts of Hinduism mention and revere the goddess, these two texts center around her as the primary divinity.[16][17][18] The Devi Mahatmya is considered to be as important a scripture as the Bhagavad Gita by the Shakta Hindus.[19][20]

    Durga has a significant following all over India, Bangladesh and Nepal, particularly in its eastern states such as West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand, Assam and Bihar. Durga is revered after spring and autumn harvests, specially during the festivals of Durga Puja and Navratri.[21][22]
    * * *

    Nandin

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C4%81ndi

    Nāndi is a Nizari Isma'ili ceremony during which food offered to the Imām-e Zamān is sold off at auction to people attending the Jamatkhana (the Ismaili place of worship). The money obtained through the sale of Nāndi is sent to the Imām by a group of people from the Ismaili community (Jama'at) given that responsibility. The people in charge of selling the food are volunteers from the Jama'at, they announce what is on the plate and members of the Jama'at put their hands up to buy it. The preparation of the food is done at home and it is brought to the Jamātkhāne, the Mukhi (Ismaili minister) mentions the food during a blessing and tells the congregation that it has been offered to the Imām and the benefits of it are for the whole Jamāt, the food is known as "Mehmāni." If no physical Mehmāni has been brought to the Jamātkhāna then a symbolic plate called the "Mehmāni plate" can be touched during the Du'a Karavi ceremony, this serves as a substitute for physical food.

    The offering of Mehmāni and buying and selling of Nāndi are not mandatory on Isma'ilis, only Holy Du'a, Dasond and following the Farmāns of the Imām are mandatory. Nāndi is symbolic and supplementary. It is said that the early Muslims gifted Prophet Muhammad with food however he then distributed it to the poor. In the Ismaili mosques, Ismailis receive the food and donate money which is then used for charity.
    * * *

    Yaksa

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaksha

    The yakshas (Sanskrit: यक्ष yakṣa; Pali: yakkha) are a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, but sometimes mischievous or capricious, connected with water, fertility, trees, the forest, treasure and wilderness.[4][5] They appear in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist texts, as well as ancient and medieval era temples of South Asia and Southeast Asia as guardian deities.[5][6] The feminine form of the word is yakṣī[7] or yakshini (Sanskrit: यक्षिणी yakṣiṇī; Pali:Yakkhini).[8]

    In Hindu, Jain and Buddhist texts, the yakṣa has a dual personality. On the one hand, a yakṣa may be an inoffensive nature-fairy, associated with woods and mountains; but there is also a darker version of the yakṣa, which is a kind of ghost (bhuta) that haunts the wilderness and waylays and devours travellers, similar to the rakṣasas.
    * * *

    PART ONE ends here

    continues in PART TWO

    * * *
    "May my ripples benefit ALL beings (everyone/everywhere/everywhen) and catalyze only cascades of goodness, with zero unwanted repercussions or unintended badness. Truly & sincerely."

  2. #2
    Harmonious Harmlessness feather-flower's Avatar
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    * * *
    PART TWO of a MULTI-POST
    (to deal with the technical difficulties that have been holding me up, since the night I first registered)
    * * *

    Ribhava

    https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/ribhava

    Ṛbhava (ऋभव).—One of the five groups of gods of Cākṣuṣa epoch.*
    * * *

    Andhaka

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhaka

    In Hindu Dharma, Andhaka (Sanskrit: अन्धक, IAST: Andhaka; lit. "He who darkens") refers to a malevolent Asura whose pride was vanquished by Shiva Pārvatī.[1]

    His story finds mention in various Hindu texts, including the Matsya Purāṇa, the Kūrma Purāṇa, the Liṅga Purāṇa, the Padma Purana and the Shiva Purana.[2] He is believed to have one thousand heads, and one thousand arms, thus having two thousand eyes. In another version, he has two thousand arms and two thousand legs.[3] In some versions of his story, Andhaka is described as a son of Shiva and Pārvatī.[4][5]
    * * *

    Kabanda

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabandha

    In Hinduism, Kabandha (कबन्ध, Kabandha, lit. "headless torso") is a Rakshasa (demon) who is killed and freed from a curse by the god Rama – an Avatar of Vishnu – and his brother Lakshmana. Kabandha's legend appears in the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as in later Ramayana adaptations.

    Kabandha was a gandharva (celestial musician) named Vishvavasu or Danu, who was cursed and made into an ugly, carnivorous demon by Indra, the king of heaven, and/or a sage named Ashtavakra. In an encounter with Rama and Lakshmana, the brothers sever his arms and proceed to cremate his corpse. Upon his death, Kabandha resumes his Gandharva form and directs Rama to the Rishyamukha mountain, where the exiled monkey-chief Sugriva is hiding. Kabandha advises Rama to form an alliance with Sugriva, who would be of assistance in the search for Rama's wife Sita, who had been kidnapped by Ravana, the demon-king of Lanka. Following Kabandha's advice, Rama befriends Sugriva and rescues Sita with his help.
    * * *

    Naga

    1.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C4%81ga

    The Nāga (IAST: nāga; Devanāgarī: नाग) or Nāgī (f. of nāga; IAST: nāgī; Devanāgarī: नागी)[1] is a divine or semi-divine race of half-human half-serpent beings that reside in the netherworld (Patala) and can occasionally take human form. Rituals devoted to these supernatural beings have been taking place throughout south Asia for at least two thousand years.[2] They are principally depicted in three forms: wholly human with snakes on the heads and necks, common serpents, or as half-human half-snake beings in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.[3]

    A female naga is a "Nagi", "Nagin", or "Nagini".

    Nāgarāja is seen as the king of nāgas and nāginis.[4] They are common and hold cultural significance in the mythological traditions of many South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. They are the children of the Rishi Kashyapa and Kadru.
    2.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_Kingdom

    The Naga Kingdom is the territory of a hardy and warlike[1] tribe called Nagas.[2] They were also considered one of the supernatural races like the Kinnaras.
    * * *

    Naraka

    1.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naraka_(Hinduism)

    Naraka (Sanskrit: नरक), also called Yamalok, is the Hindu equivalent of Hell, where sinners are tormented after death.[1] It is also the abode of Dharamraj Yama, the god of Death. It is described as located in the south of the universe and beneath the earth.

    The number and names of hells, as well as the type of sinners sent to a particular hell, varies from text to text; however, many scriptures describe 28 hells.[1] After death, messengers of Yama called Yamadutas bring all beings to the court of Yama, where he weighs the virtues and the vices of the being and passes a judgement, sending the virtuous to Svarga (heaven) and the sinners to one of the hells. The stay in Svarga or Naraka is generally described as temporary. After the quantum of punishment is over, the souls are reborn as lower or higher beings as per their merits[1] (the exception being Hindu philosopher Madhvacharya, who believes in eternal damnation of the Tamo-yogyas in Andhantamas).[2]
    2.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naraka_(Buddhism)

    Naraka (Sanskrit: नरक; Pali: निरय Niraya) is a term in Buddhist cosmology[1] usually referred to in English as "hell" (or "hell realm") or "purgatory". The Narakas of Buddhism are closely related to diyu, the hell in Chinese mythology. A Naraka differs from the hell of Christianity in two respects: firstly, beings are not sent to Naraka as the result of a divine judgment or punishment; and secondly, the length of a being's stay in a Naraka is not eternal,[2] though it is usually incomprehensibly long, from hundreds of millions to sextillions (1021) of years.

    A being is born into a Naraka as a direct result of its accumulated actions (karma) and resides there for a finite period of time until that karma has achieved its full result.[3] After its karma is used up, it will be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the result of karma that had not yet ripened.

    In the Devaduta Sutta, the 130th discourse of Majjhima Nikaya, the Buddha teaches about hell in vivid detail.

    Physically, Narakas are thought of as a series of cavernous layers which extend below Jambudvīpa (the ordinary human world) into the earth. There are several schemes for enumerating these Narakas and describing their torments. The Abhidharma-kosa (Treasure House of Higher Knowledge) is the root text that describes the most common scheme, as the Eight Cold Narakas and Eight Hot Narakas.[4]
    3.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naraka_(Jainism)

    Naraka (Sanskrit: नरक) is the realm of existence in Jain cosmology characterized by great suffering. Naraka is usually translated into English as "hell" or "purgatory".

    Naraka differs from the hells of Abrahamic religions as souls are not sent to Naraka as the result of a divine judgment and punishment. Furthermore, the length of a being's stay in a Naraka is not eternal, though it is usually very long—measured in billions of years. A soul is reborn into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her previous karma (actions of body, speech and mind), and resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has achieved its full result. After his karma is used up, he may be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the result of an earlier karma that had not yet ripened.
    * * *

    Bana

    1.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banasura

    Bana is described as an ancient king of Sonitpur in several Hindu Puranic scriptures. Bana was a thousand-armed Asura king, and the son of Mahabali.[1][2]

    Some other sources say that since Banasur, son of Asura King Mahabali who is believed to be a central character in the mythology and culture of Kerala inherits his kingdom from his father and is believed to have ruled from Kerala. There is a hill named "Banasur Hill" and a dam, "Banasur Sagar Dam" dedicated to the memory of their great ruler's son Bana.
    2.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banalinga

    Banalinga, a stone found in nature, in the bed of the Narmada river in Madhya Pradesh state, India, is an iconic symbol of worship, based on either the scriptures or cultural traditions among the Hindus, particularly of the Shaivaites and Smartha Brahmins. Stones are ancient and connote divinity. It is a smooth ellipsoid stone.

    Banalinga is also called the Svayambhu Linga: (Sanskrit) "Self-existent mark or sign of God", as it is discovered in nature and not carved or crafted by human hands.[1]

    The forms of Linga can vary in detail from a simple roller shape roughly cylindrical Banalinga to the stone carved with a thousand facets (Sahasralinga) or of light relief in several human figures (Mukhalinga). The Linga in the shrine of a temple is in stone.[2]

    The Narmada Shivling are quite strong and the hardness is a 7 on the Mohs scale. It is the considered view of many researchers and geologists that the unique composition of the Narmadha Shivalingas was due to the impregnation of its rocky river-sides and the rocks in the river bed.[3]
    * * *

    Marica

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maricha

    In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Maricha, or Mareecha (Sanskrit: मारीच, IAST: Mārīca) is a demon, who was killed by Rama, the hero of the epic and an avatar of Lord Vishnu. He is mentioned as an ally of Ravana, the antagonist of the epic. His most notable exploit is his role in the kidnapping of Sita, Rama's wife. His son Kalanemi was killed by Hanuman.

    Cursed to be a rakshasa along with his mother Tataka and brother Subahu, Maricha initially led his life terrorizing sages. He was defeated by Rama at the behest of the sage Vishvamitra. He tried again to kill Rama, but had to run for his life again. Ultimately, Maricha assumed the form of a golden deer and helped Ravana kidnap Sita.
    * * *

    Ravana

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ravana

    Ravana (/ˈrɑːvənə/;[1] Sanskrit: रावण, IAST: Rāvaṇa, pronounced [ˈraːʋɐɳɐ]) was a king[2] of the island Lanka and the chief antagonist in the Hindu epic Ramayana and its adaptations.[3][4]

    In the Ramayana, Ravana is described to be the eldest son of sage Vishrava and Rakshasi Kaikesi. He abducted lord Rama's wife Sita and took her to his kingdom of Lanka, where he held her in Ashok Vatika.[5] Later, Rama, with the support of vanara King Sugriva and his army of vanars, attacked Ravana in Lanka. They killed Ravana and Rama rescued his beloved wife Sita.[6][7]

    Ravana is widely considered to be a symbol of evil but he also has many qualities that make him a learned scholar. He was well-versed in the six shastras and the four Vedas.[citation needed] Ravana is also considered to be the most revered devotee of Shiva. Images of Ravana are seen associated with Shiva at some places. He also appears in the Buddhist Mahayana text Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, in Buddhist Ramayanas and Jatakas, as well as in Jain Ramayanas. In some scriptures, he is depicted as one of Vishnu’s cursed doorkeepers.[8]
    * * *

    Deva

    1.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deva_(Hinduism)

    Deva (/ˈdeɪvə/; Sanskrit: देव, Deva) means "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and is also one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism.[1] Deva is a masculine term; the feminine equivalent is Devi.

    In the earliest Vedic literature, all supernatural beings are called Devas[2][3][4] and Asuras.[5][6] The concepts and legends evolve in ancient Indian literature, and by the late Vedic period, benevolent supernatural beings are referred to as Deva-Asuras. In post-Vedic texts, such as the Puranas and the Itihasas of Hinduism, the Devas represent the good, and the Asuras the bad.[7][8] In some medieval Indian literature, Devas are also referred to as Suras and contrasted with their equally powerful but malevolent half-brothers, referred to as the Asuras.[9]

    Devas, along with Asuras, Yakshas (nature spirits) and Rakshasas (ghoulish ogres/demons), are part of Indian mythology, and Devas feature in many cosmological theories in Hinduism.[10][11]
    2.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deva_(Buddhism)

    A Deva (देव Sanskrit and Pāli, Mongolian tenger (тэнгэр)) in Buddhism is a type of celestial beings who share the god-like characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, much happier than humans, although the same level of veneration is not paid to them as to Buddhas.

    Other words used in Buddhist texts to refer to similar supernatural beings are devatā ("deities") and devaputta ("son of god"). While the former is a synonym for deva ("celestials"), the latter refers specifically to one of these beings who is young and has newly arisen in its heavenly world.
    * * *

    Savitri

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savitri

    In Hinduism

    Savitri, with all vowels short, a Roman-phonetic spelling of the Rigvedic solar deity Savitr
    Sāvitrī, a name of the Gayatri Mantra dedicated to Savitr
    Savitri (goddess), the consort of Brahma, a form of Saraswati
    Name of a manifestation of Prakṛti
    Savitri, a Hindu character from the story of Savitri and Satyavan in the epic Mahabharata
    * * *

    Pushan

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pushan

    Pushan (Sanskrit: पूषन्, romanized: Pūṣan) is a Hindu Vedic solar deity and one of the Adityas. He is the god of meeting. Pushan is responsible for marriages, journeys, roads, and the feeding of cattle. He was a psychopomp (soul guide), conducting souls to the other world. He protected travelers from bandits and wild beasts, and protected men from being exploited by other men. He was a supportive guide, a "good" god, leading his adherents towards rich pastures and wealth.
    * * *

    Rukmin

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rukmini

    Rukmini (Sanskrit: रुक्मिणी, IAST: Rukmini, lit. 'radiant or adorned with gold') is a Hindu Goddess and the first queen consort of Krishna—an incarnation of Vishnu. She is considered as the incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi.

    Born to King Bhishmaka of Vidarbha Kingdom, Rukmini is described to be beautiful, intelligent and virtuous. When her brother Rukmi tried to forcefully get her married to Shishupala, she asked Krishna to abduct her. Krishna heroically eloped with her and they had ten children including Pradyumna.

    Rukmini is mainly worshipped in Maharashtra and South India. The people of Maharashtra venerate her with Vithoba (a regional form of Krishna) and call her Rakhumai.[1] In South India, she is worshipped along with Krishna and his other consort Satyabhama.
    * * *

    Nidra

    1.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoga_nidra

    Yoga nidra (Sanskrit: योग निद्रा, yoga nidrā) or yogic sleep in modern usage is a state of consciousness between waking and sleeping, typically induced by a guided meditation.

    A state called yoga nidra is mentioned in the Upanishads and the Mahabharata.
    2.
    http://www.hindupedia.com/en/Nidr%C4%81

    Aspects of Nidrā

    The word ‘nidrā’ is most commonly interpreted as ‘sleep’. It has two aspects:

    Svapna means dreams.
    Suṣupti means dreamless sleep or deep sleep.

    Signficance of Nidrā

    Nidrā is needed for the health of the body. When the three dhatus, basic humors of the body, are in a state of equilibrium, good health is attained. Sound sleep at the right time is an aid to good health. Good sleep is denied to those who are stricken with poverty or disease or to the immoral persons. It comes easily to healthy persons and who are pure in heart. Yogic works describe that sleep over-¬takes a person when his mind enters the medhyānāḍī, one of the several nāḍīs in the human body.
    References

    Prādhānikarahasya 10
    He lived in 200 B. C.
    Yogasutras 1.10
    Tamas means darkness or ignorance.
    Waking means jāgrat state.
    Dream means svapna.
    Māndukyakārikā 3.44, 45
    Sārīrasthāna 4.32

    Hṛdayapuṇḍarīka means heart-lotus.

    The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore
    * * *

    Rati

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rati

    Rati (Sanskrit: रति, Rati) is the Hindu goddess of love, carnal desire, lust, passion and sexual pleasure.[2][3][4][5] Usually described as the daughter of Prajapati Daksha, Rati is the female counterpart, the chief consort and the assistant of Kama (Kamadeva), the god of love. A constant companion of Kama, she is often depicted with him in legend and temple sculpture. She also enjoys worship along with Kama.

    The Hindu scriptures stress Rati's beauty and sensuality. They depict her as a maiden who has the power to enchant the god of love. When the god Shiva burnt her husband to ashes, it was Rati, whose beseeching or penance, leads to the promise of Kama's resurrection. Often, this resurrection occurs when Kama is reborn as Pradyumna, the son of Krishna. Rati – under the name of Mayavati – plays a critical role in the upbringing of Pradyumna, who is separated from his parents at birth. She acts as his nanny, as well as his lover, and tells him the way to return to his parents by slaying the demon-king, who is destined to die at his hands. Later, Kama-Pradyumna accepts Rati-Mayavati as his wife.
    Fun fact about me #3: Some of my other favourite Mags were 2 different Rati Mags. One of which had red-photon protrusion-tips, that matched well with the Flame Garment that my character wore at the time. While the other Rati had skyblue-photon protrusion-tips, which perfectly complemented the Aura Field that my character wore later on. That one looked nice with the Yamato item too, but for Ultimate, Yamato wasn't strong enough, so I eventually made the switch to Sange & Yasha, despite the beautiful color combo.

    * * *


    Diwari

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diwali

    Diwali (English: /dɪˈwɑːliː/; Deepavali (IAST: dīpāvalī) or Divali; related to Jain Diwali, Bandi Chhor Divas, Tihar, Swanti, Sohrai and Bandna) is a festival of lights and one of the major festivals celebrated by Hindus, Jains, and Sikhs.[3] The festival usually lasts five days and is celebrated during the Hindu lunisolar month Kartika (between mid-October and mid-November).[4][5][6] One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, Diwali symbolizes the spiritual "victory of light over darkness, good over evil, and knowledge over ignorance".[7][8][9][10] The festival is widely associated with Lakshmi, goddess of prosperity, with many other regional traditions connecting the holiday to Sita and Rama, Vishnu, Krishna, Yama, Yami, Durga, Kali, Hanuman, Ganesha, Kubera, Dhanvantari, or Vishvakarman. Furthermore, it is, in some regions, a celebration of the day Rama returned to his kingdom Ayodhya with his wife Sita and his brother Lakshmana after defeating Ravana in Lanka and serving 14 years of exile.

    In the lead-up to Diwali, celebrants will prepare by cleaning, renovating, and decorating their homes and workplaces with diyas (oil lamps) and rangolis (colorful art circle patterns).[11] During Diwali, people wear their finest clothes, illuminate the interior and exterior of their homes with diyas and rangoli, perform worship ceremonies of Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity and wealth,[note 1] light fireworks, and partake in family feasts, where mithai (sweets) and gifts are shared. Diwali is also a major cultural event for the Hindu, Sikh and Jain diaspora.[14][15][16]

    The five-day long festival originated in the Indian subcontinent and is mentioned in early Sanskrit texts. Diwali is usually celebrated twenty days after the Vijayadashami (Dussehra, Dasara, Dasain) festival, with Dhanteras, or the regional equivalent, marking the first day of the festival when celebrants prepare by cleaning their homes and making decorations on the floor, such as rangolis.[17] The second day is Naraka Chaturdashi. The third day is the day of Lakshmi Puja and the darkest night of the traditional month. In some parts of India, the day after Lakshmi Puja is marked with the Govardhan Puja and Balipratipada (Padwa). Some Hindu communities mark the last day as Bhai Dooj or the regional equivalent, which is dedicated to the bond between sister and brother,[18] while other Hindu and Sikh craftsmen communities mark this day as Vishwakarma Puja and observe it by performing maintenance in their work spaces and offering prayers.[19][20]

    Some other faiths in India also celebrate their respective festivals alongside Diwali. The Jains observe their own Diwali which marks the final liberation of Mahavira,[21][22] the Sikhs celebrate Bandi Chhor Divas to mark the release of Guru Hargobind from a Mughal Empire prison,[23] while Newar Buddhists, unlike other Buddhists, celebrate Diwali by worshipping Lakshmi, while the Hindus of Eastern India and Bangladesh generally celebrate Diwali by worshipping the goddess Kali.[24][25][26] The main day of the festival of Diwali (the day of Lakshmi Puja) is an official holiday in Fiji,[27] Guyana,[28] India, Malaysia,[a][29] Mauritius, Myanmar,[30] Nepal,[31] Pakistan,[32] Singapore,[33] Sri Lanka, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago.[34]
    So to point out the obvious: "diwari" is likely an "engrish" mistranslation for this Mag's name.

    * * *

    Bhima

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhima

    In Hindu epic Mahabharata, Bhima (Sanskrit: भीम, IAST: Bhīma) is the second among the five Pandavas. The Mahabharata relates many events that portray the might of Bhima. Bhima was born when Vayu, the wind god, granted a son to Kunti and Pandu. After the death of Pandu and Madri, Kunti with her sons stayed in Hastinapura. From his childhood, Bhima had a rivalry with his cousins Kauravas, especially Duryodhana. Duryodhana and his uncle, Shakuni, tried to kill Bhima multiple times. One was by poisoning and throwing Bhima into a river. Bhima was rescued by Nāgas and was given a drink which made him very strong and immune to all venom.

    After the event of Lakshagriha, the Pandavas and their mother decided to hide from Hastinapura. During this period Bhima slew many Rakshasa including Bakasura and Hidimba. Bhima had three wives — Hidimbi, the Rakshasi sister of Hidimba, Draupadi, who was married to five Pandavas because of Kunti's misunderstanding, and Valandhara, a princess of Kashi Kingdom. Ghatotkacha, Sutasoma and Savarga were his three sons.

    After the brothers founded the city of Indraprastha, Bhima went to Magadha and killed its mighty ruler, Jarasandha. Later Yudhishthira was invited by Duryodhana to play a game of dice, in which he lost. The Pandavas along with their wife, Draupadi, were sent into exile for thirteen years. During their exile, Bhima met his spiritual brother, Lord Hanuman. For incognito, the Pandavas chose the Matsya Kingdom to hide. There Bhima disguised himself as a cook named Vallabha. He also killed the general of the kingdom, Kichaka, as he tried to molest Draupadi. During the Kurukshetra War, Bhima alone killed a hundred Kaurava brothers in the Kurukshetra war. He was considered to have the physical strength of 10,000 elephants approximately.
    * * *

    Agastya

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agastya

    Agastya (Tamil: அகத்தியர், Sanskrit: अगस्त्य) was a revered Indian sage of Hinduism.[1] In the Indian tradition, he is a noted recluse and an influential scholar in diverse languages of the Indian subcontinent. He and his wife Lopamudra are the celebrated authors of hymns 1.165 to 1.191 in the Sanskrit text Rigveda and other Vedic literature.[1][2][3]

    Agastya appears in numerous itihasas and Puranas including the major Ramayana and Mahabharata.[3][4] He is one of the seven most revered rishis (the Saptarishi) in the Vedic texts,[5] and is revered as one of the Tamil Siddhar in the Shaivism tradition, who invented an early grammar of the Tamil language, Agattiyam, playing a pioneering role in the development of Tampraparniyan medicine and spirituality at Saiva centres in proto-era Sri Lanka and South India. He is also revered in the Puranic literature of Shaktism and Vaishnavism.[6] He is one of the Indian sages found in ancient sculpture and reliefs in Hindu temples of South Asia, and Southeast Asia such as in the early medieval era Shaiva temples on Java Indonesia. He is the principal figure and Guru in the ancient Javanese language text Agastyaparva, whose 11th century version survives.[7][8]

    Agastya is traditionally attributed to be the author of many Sanskrit texts such as the Agastya Gita found in Varaha Purana, Agastya Samhita found embedded in Skanda Purana, and the Dvaidha-Nirnaya Tantra text.[3] He is also referred to as Mana, Kalasaja, Kumbhaja, Kumbhayoni and Maitravaruni after his mythical origins.[7][9][10]
    * * *

    Sato

    These final two names are probably of Japanese origina & abbreviation, just to clarify, when compared with the Indian origin of most of the rest.

    The name "Sato" probably derives from the term "satori".

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satori

    Satori (悟り) is a Japanese Buddhist term for awakening, "comprehension; understanding".[1] It is derived from the Japanese verb satoru.[2][3]

    In the Zen Buddhist tradition, satori refers to a deep experience of kenshō,[4][5] "seeing into one's true nature". Ken means "seeing," shō means "nature" or "essence".[4]

    Satori and kenshō are commonly translated as enlightenment, a word that is also used to translate bodhi, prajñā and Buddhahood.
    From my viewpoint, this name actually seems quite fitting, since the Sato Mag is focused on the MND stat, which is most useful to FO=type characters, who themselves train their minds in order to wield their psionic powers.

    But who knew a cute cat companion was the final ingredient to actualizing a person's innate Buddha nature?

    Speaking of "buddha nature":

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddha-nature

    Buddha-nature is a central topic in mahāyāna buddhism which explains how it is possible that all sentient beings can attain the state of a Buddha.[3] The term first appears in several sutras which are associated with the Gupta period (c. 4th–6th centuries CE).[4] One meaning of the term is that all sentient beings contain an enlightened Buddha within them.[5] Paul Williams also explains that this can also imply "that sentient beings have a tathāgata within them in seed or embryo, that sentient beings are the wombs or matrices of the tathāgata, or that they have a tathāgata as their essence, core, or essential inner nature."[5] Another way of speaking about this idea is that it is that which "enables sentient beings to become Buddhas."[6]
    * * *

    Mag

    Even the name "Mag" was probably derived from the term "magatama".

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magatama

    Magatama (勾玉, less frequently 曲玉) are curved, comma-shaped beads that appeared in prehistoric Japan from the Final Jōmon period through the Kofun period, approximately 1000 BCE to the 6th century CE.[1] The beads, also described as "jewels", were made of primitive stone and earthen materials in the early period, but by the end of the Kofun period were made almost exclusively of jade. Magatama originally served as decorative jewelry, but by the end of the Kofun period functioned as ceremonial and religious objects.[2] Archaeological evidence suggests that magatama were produced in specific areas of Japan and were widely dispersed throughout the Japanese archipelago from the Southern Koreanic kingdoms via trade routes.[3]
    What's even MORE interesting about this one, is how, in the section "Origin of magatama forms", one possible explanation listed is: "They may be modeled after the shape of fetuses".

    Which relates to the quest "Soul Of Steel, where the RAcaseal Ult is incubating a Mag inside her. Plus, your character is given the RAcaseal Elenor's Mag, which we occasionally "feel move" while it's in our possession, almost as if you became a surrogate incubator as well.

    * * *

    I know it's a load of info to digest, yet, I truly hope this effort to share what I noticed about these names was worthwhile for somebody out there.


    * * *
    PART TWO ends here
    and concludes this MULTI-POST
    * * *
    "May my ripples benefit ALL beings (everyone/everywhere/everywhen) and catalyze only cascades of goodness, with zero unwanted repercussions or unintended badness. Truly & sincerely."

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